Recently, oxidized phospholipid species have emerged as important signaling lipids in activated immune cells and platelets. The canonical pathway for the synthesis of oxidized phospholipids is through the release of arachidonic acid by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) followed by its enzymatic oxidation, activation of the carboxylate anion by acyl-CoA synthetase(s), and re-esterification to the sn-2 position by sn-2 acyltransferase activity (i.e. the Lands cycle). However, recent studies have demonstrated the unanticipated significance of sn-1 hydrolysis of arachidonoyl-containing choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids by other phospholipases to generate the corresponding 2-arachidonoyl-lysolipids. Herein, we identified a pathway for oxidized phospholipid synthesis comprising sequential sn-1 hydrolysis by a phospholipase A1 (e.g. by patatin-like phospholipase domain– containing 8 (PNPLA8)), direct enzymatic oxidation of the resultant 2-arachidonoyl-lysophos-pholipids, and the esterification of oxidized 2-arachidonoyl-lysophospholipids by acyl-CoA– dependent sn-1 acyltransferase(s). To circumvent ambiguities associated with acyl migration or hydrolysis, we developed a synthesis for optically active (D- and L-enantiomers) nonhydrolyzable analogs of 2-arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-AA-LPC). sn-1 acyltransferase activity in murine liver microsomes stereospe-cifically and preferentially utilized the naturally occurring L-enantiomer of the ether analog of lysophosphatidylcholine. Next, we demonstrated the high selectivity of the sn-1 acyltransferase activity for saturated acyl-CoA species. Importantly, we established that 2–15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) ether-LPC sn-1 esterification is markedly activated by thrombin treatment of murine platelets to generate oxidized PC. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the enantiomeric specificity and saturated acyl-CoA selectivity of microsomal sn-1 acyltransferase(s) and reveal its participation in a previously uncharacterized pathway for the synthesis of oxidized phospholipids with cell-signaling properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10146-10159
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number26
StatePublished - Jun 28 2019


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