Peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma (PPARγ) binds to peroxisome receptor response elements with its heterodimeric partner, retinoid X receptor, and regulates downstream gene expression. PPARγ transcriptionally modulates fat metabolism, and receptor agonists have been developed to treat type II diabetes. PPARγ is also overexpressed in some tumor cell lines and primary tumors, including breast and prostate tumors. Two PPARγ antagonists, 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662) and 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-pyridin-4-yl-benzamide (T0070907), represent good lead compounds for radiotracer development. In the current study, four additional halogen substituted analogs were synthesized and evaluated in a whole cell screening assay for PPARγ binding activity. Two bromine-containing analogs having EC50 values <5 nM were chosen for bromine-76 radiolabeling. Bromine-76-labeled 2-bromo-5-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide was selected for subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies due to its superior radiolabeling yield (∼70%) and the well-characterized pharmacological properties of its analog GW9662. An in vitro stability study showed that 40% of the compound remained intact in plasma and about 25% in whole blood after 30 min. Biodistribution studies in MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor-bearing nude mice were carried out at 5 min, 30 min, 2 h and 24 h post injection of the radiotracer. Although in vivo metabolite studies demonstrated rapid compound degradation, at least 10% of the parent compound was delivered to the tumor. We are currently exploring second generation analogs of these lead compounds for the development of radiolabeled antagonists of the PPARγ receptor.
- Breast tumor imaging agent