Syndromic Involvement of Patients Presenting With Congenital Upper Limb Anomalies: An Analysis of 4,317 Cases

CoULD Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study investigated the patterns of syndromic involvement for patients with congenital upper limb anomalies (CULAs). We hypothesize that patients with CULAs will present with predictable syndromic patterns. Methods: This retrospective study queried the multicenter Congenital Upper Limb Differences (CoULD) Registry. Of the 4,317 patients enrolled, 578 (13%) reported one or more syndromes. Syndromes were confirmed to be recognized by the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Demographics were reviewed and compared with the full CoULD registry group. Syndromes reported by five or more patients were examined to determine the type of CULA according to Oberg/Manske/Tonkin classifications. Results: Of the 578 children with one or more reported syndromes, 517 had Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man recognized syndromes (cohort A), In cohort A, 58 syndromes were each represented by a single patient within the registry. Forty-eight syndromes in cohort A were reported by two or more patients, which accounted for 461 of the total patients with reported syndromes. However, VACTERL and Poland syndromes were the most commonly reported syndromes. Patients with CULAs and syndromes frequently exhibited bilateral involvement (61%), compared with the entire CoULD group (47%) and other orthopedic (50%) and medical conditions (61%) compared with the entire CoULD group (24% and 27%, respectively). Additionally, they exhibited a lower frequency of family history of a congenital orthopedic condition (21%) or a family member with the same CULA (9%) compared with the entire CoULD group (26% and 14%, respectively). Conclusions: Associated syndromes were recorded in 578 patients (13%) in the CoULD registry as follows: 58 syndromes represented by a single patient, 48 by 2 or more patients, and 23 syndromes by 5 or more patients. Rare syndromes that are only represented by a single patient are more likely to be unknown by a pediatric hand surgeon, and consultation with a geneticist is advised. Type of study/level of evidence: Differential Diagnosis/Symptom Prevalence Study IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-320
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • Congenital upper limb anomalies
  • genetics
  • multicenter registry
  • syndromes


Dive into the research topics of 'Syndromic Involvement of Patients Presenting With Congenital Upper Limb Anomalies: An Analysis of 4,317 Cases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this