Symptomatic intracranial arterial disease is associated with a high rate of recurrent ischemic events. The management of this condition is controversial, with some advocating medical therapy as a sole means of treatment and others recommending endovascular therapy in addition to best medical management. In rare cases, surgical intervention is considered. A thorough review of the available literature was performed, and treatment recommendations based on these data are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE14
JournalNeurosurgical focus
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2011


  • Balloon angioplasty
  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Extracranial-intracranial bypass
  • Intracranial stenosis


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