Sustained Preservation of Cognition and Prevention of Patient-Reported Symptoms With Hippocampal Avoidance During Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Final Results of NRG Oncology CC001

Vinai Gondi, Snehal Deshmukh, Paul D. Brown, Jeffrey S. Wefel, Terri S. Armstrong, Wolfgang A. Tome, Mark R. Gilbert, Andre Konski, Clifford G. Robinson, Joseph A. Bovi, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, David Roberge, Vijayananda Kundapur, Isaac Kaufman, Sunjay Shah, Kenneth Y. Usuki, Andrew M. Baschnagel, Minesh P. Mehta, Lisa A. Kachnic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Initial report of NRG Oncology CC001, a phase 3 trial of whole-brain radiation therapy plus memantine (WBRT + memantine) with or without hippocampal avoidance (HA), demonstrated neuroprotective effects of HA with a median follow-up of fewer than 8 months. Herein, we report the final results with complete cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and longer-term follow-up exceeding 1 year. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with brain metastases were randomized to HA-WBRT + memantine or WBRT + memantine. The primary endpoint was time to cognitive function failure, defined as decline using the reliable change index on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Controlled Oral Word Association, or the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B. Patient-reported symptom burden was assessed using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory with Brain Tumor Module and EQ-5D-5L. Results: Between July 2015 and March 2018, 518 patients were randomized. The median follow-up for living patients was 12.1 months. The addition of HA to WBRT + memantine prevented cognitive failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.74, P = .016) and was associated with less deterioration in TMT-B at 4 months (P = .012) and HVLT-R recognition at 4 (P = .055) and 6 months (P = .011). Longitudinal modeling of imputed data showed better preservation of all HVLT-R domains (P < .005). Patients who received HA-WBRT + Memantine reported less symptom burden at 6 (P < .001 using imputed data) and 12 months (P = .026 using complete-case data; P < .001 using imputed data), less symptom interference at 6 (P = .003 using complete-case data; P = .0016 using imputed data) and 12 months (P = .0027 using complete-case data; P = .0014 using imputed data), and fewer cognitive symptoms over time (P = .043 using imputed data). Treatment arms did not differ significantly in overall survival, intracranial progression-free survival, or toxicity. Conclusions: With median follow-up exceeding 1 year, HA during WBRT + memantine for brain metastases leads to sustained preservation of cognitive function and continued prevention of patient-reported neurologic symptoms, symptom interference, and cognitive symptoms with no difference in survival or toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-580
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume117
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023

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