Acute kidney injury (AKI) management remains mainly supportive as no specific therapeutic agents directed at singular signaling pathways have succeeded in clinical trials. Here, we report that inhibition of thrombin-driven clotting and inflammatory signaling with use of locally-acting thrombin-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) protects renal vasculature and broadly modulates diverse inflammatory processes that cause renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Each PFC NP was complexed with ~13,650 copies of the direct thrombin inhibitor, PPACK (proline-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl-ketone). Mice treated after the onset of AKI with PPACK PFC NP exhibited downregulated VCAM-1, ICAM-1, PGD2 prostanoid, M-CSF, IL-6, and mast cell infiltrates. Microvascular architecture, tubular basement membranes, and brush border components were better preserved. Non-reperfusion was reduced as indicated by reduced red blood cell trapping and non-heme iron. Kidney function and tubular necrosis improved at 24 hours versus the untreated control group, suggesting a benefit for dual inhibition of thrombosis and inflammation by PPACK PFC NP.
|Journal||Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine|
|State||Published - Nov 2021|
- Acute kidney injury
- Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles
- Vessel damage