Supraclavicular exploration has become a widely utilized, versatile, and effective approach in the treatment of thoracic outlet compression syndromes. It is applicable to neurogenic, arterial, and venous term of TOS. Although certain aspects of the surgical anatomy are quite familiar to most vascular surgeons, considerable attention must be given to the details of this procedure to avoid inadequate decompression, serious injury, or predictable causes of recurrent compression. Supraclavicular exploration and its variations provide an excellent approach to the entire spectrum of problems encountered in patients with TOS, and in many centers it has superceded the transaxillary approach previously popularized for these disorders. Because supraclavicular exploration for TOS involves a number of unique technical considerations and because it is typically applied to a difficult clinical problem outside the routine experience of most vascular surgeons, it should be undertaken only with appropriate training and interest in the comprehensive management of patients with TOS.