Surgical Strategies for Bismuth Type I and II Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Impact on Long-Term Outcomes

Xu Feng Zhang, Nan Zhang, Diamantis I. Tsilimigras, Sharon M. Weber, George Poultsides, Ioannis Hatzaras, Ryan C. Fields, Jin He, Charles Scoggins, Kamron Idrees, Perry Shen, Shishir K. Maithel, Timothy M. Pawlik

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Background: The surgical approach to treat Bismuth type I and II hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) has been a topic of debate. We sought to characterize whether bile duct resection (BDR) with or without concomitant hepatic resection (HR) was associated with R0 margin status, as well as define the impact of HR+BDR versus BDR alone on long-term survival. Methods: Patients who underwent curative-intent HR+BDR for HCCA between 2000 and 2014 were identified from a multi-institutional database. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were compared among patients who underwent BDR only, BDR+left hepatic resection (LHR), and BDR+right hepatic resection (RHR) for Bismuth type I and II HCCA. Results: Among 257 patients with HCCA, 61 (23.7%) patients had a Bismuth type I (n=25, 41.0%) or II (n=36, 59.0%) lesion. The incidence of R0 resection after BDR only was the same as among patients after LHR and RHR (BDR 70.0% vs. BDR+LHR 71.4% vs. BDR+RHR 76.5%, p=0.891). In contrast, severe complications were more likely after LHR and RHR than BDR only (BDR 21.4% vs. BDR+LHR 60.0% and BDR+RHR 50.0%, p=0.041). Overall (median: BDR 20.9 vs. BDR+LHR 23.2 and BDR+RHR 25.0 months, p=0.213) and recurrence-free (median: BDR 13.4 vs. BDR+LHR 15.3 and BDR+RHR 25.0, p= 0.109) survival were comparable. On multivariable analysis, while CA19-9>37.0U/ml (Ref. CA19-9≤37.0U/ml, HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1–9.4, p=0.035) and AJCC T3-T4 disease (Ref. T1-T2, HR 4.6, 95% CI 1.5–13.7, p=0.007) were associated with long-term survival, surgical approach was not (BDR+LHR: HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.2, p=0.937; BDR+RHR: HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3, p=0.197). Conclusion: R0 resection, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival were comparable among well-selected patients who had BDR versus BDR+HR for Bismuth type I and II HCCA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3084-3091
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Bismuth I
  • Bismuth II
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Hilar
  • Outcomes
  • Resection


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