Surgical outcomes of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors G3 versus neuroendocrine carcinoma

Mu Xing Li, Alexandra G. Lopez-Aguiar, George Poultsides, Flavio Rocha, Sharon Weber, Ryan Fields, Kamran Idrees, Cliff Cho, Shishir K. Maithel, Xu Feng Zhang, Timothy M. Pawlik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: To define surgical outcomes of patients with high-grade gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm grade G3 (GEP-NEN G3). Methods: Patients who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2016 were identified. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors grade G3 (GEP-NET G3) versus neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) were evaluated. Results: Fifty-one out of 2182 (2.3%) patients who underwent surgical resection were diagnosed as GEP-NEN G3. The pancreas was the most common primary site (n = 3772.5%). A majority of patients had lymph node metastasis (n = 3262.7%); one in three (n = 1631.4%) had distant metastasis. The median OS and RFS of the entire cohort were 56.4 and 34.5 months, respectively. Perineural invasion was a strong prognostic factor associate with OS after surgical resection. Patients with NEC had a worse survival outcome versus patients with NET G3 (median OS: 33.1 months vs. not attained, p = 0.088). In contrast, among patients who underwent curative-intent resection, patients with NEC had comparable RFS versus patients with NET G3 (median RFS: 35.6 vs. 33.9 months, p = 0.774). Conclusions: Surgical resection provided acceptable short- and long-outcomes for well-selected patients with resectable GEP-NEN G3. NEC was associated with a worse OS versus NET G3.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-697
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of surgical oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 15 2022


  • WHO grade 3
  • gastro-entero-pancreatic
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm
  • outcome
  • surgery


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