OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to highlight the most salient imaging features of retrorectal masses with regard to surgical planning, preoperative biopsy, and identification of nonneoplastic mimickers of malignancy. CONCLUSION. Retrorectal tumors are associated with high morbidity. CT and MRI aid in preoperative planning because surgical resection is the treatment of choice for both benign and malignant entities. Radiologists need to understand the operative techniques currently used for retrorectal tumors because the first attempt at excision is the best chance for complete resection and optimal outcome.