Surgical Infection Society Guidelines: 2022 Updated Guidelines for Antibiotic Use in Open Extremity Fractures

Sara A. Buckman, Joseph D. Forrester, Kovi E. Bessoff, Sara E. Parli, Heather L. Evans, Jared M. Huston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Open fractures, defined as fractures communicating with the environment through a skin wound, cause substantial morbidity after traumatic injury. Current evidence supports administration of prophylactic systemic antibiotic agents to patients with open extremity fractures to decrease infectious complications. Methods: The Therapeutic and Guidelines Committee of The Surgical Infection Society convened to revise guidelines for antibiotic use in open fractures. PubMed was queried for pertinent studies. Evaluation of the published evidence was performed using the GRADE framework. All committee members voted to accept or reject each recommendation. Results: In type I or II open extremity fractures, we recommend against administration of extended-spectrum antibiotic coverage compared with gram-positive coverage alone to decrease infections complications, hospital length of stay or mortality. In type III open extremity fractures, we recommend antibiotic therapy for no more than 24 hrs after injury, in the absence of clinical signs of active infection, to decrease infectious complications, hospital length of stay or mortality, and we recommend against extended antimicrobial coverage beyond gram-positive organisms to decrease infectious complications, hospital length of stay or mortality. In type III open extremity fractures with associated bone loss, we recommend antibiotic therapy in addition to systemic therapy to decrease infectious complications. Conclusions: Although antibiotic agents remain a standard of care for infection prevention after open extremity fractures, our findings and surveys of clinical practice patterns clearly show that additional robust clinical trials are needed to provide stronger corroborating evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-828
Number of pages12
JournalSurgical infections
Volume23
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • open extremity fracture
  • prophylaxis
  • trauma

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