Surgery: Transplantation

E. P. Trulock, R. R. Hachem

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Lung transplantation has emerged over the past 20 years as a successful treatment option for a variety of end-stage lung diseases. The first human lung transplantation procedure was performed in 1963, but a limited number of procedures were carried out over the next 20 years because of poor outcomes. During this time period, the main complication was impaired bronchial anastomotic healing, and dehiscence was a common cause of death after the first postoperative week. In the early 1980s, when surgical techniques were refined and ciclosporin first became available, lung transplantation became a viable treatment option for carefully selected recipients suffering from a variety of end-stage lung diseases. Since then, activity has grown rapidly and, currently, approximately 1600 lung transplant procedures are performed annually worldwide. However, long-term results remain disappointing, and the 5-year survival rate is approximately 45%. Chronic rejection is the leading cause of death after the first year, and common complications including infections, hypertension, renal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus that significantly impact the recipient's quality of life. Nonetheless, in appropriately selected recipients, transplantation prolongs survival and improves quality of life.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, Four-Volume Set
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9780123708793
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006


  • Acute rejection
  • Aspergillus
  • Bronchial dehiscence
  • Bronchial stenosis
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Obliterative bronchiolitis
  • Outcomes
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Referral
  • Survival


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