Screening mammography aims to identify breast cancer early and secondarily measures breast density to classify women at higher or lower than average risk for future breast cancer in the general population. Despite the strong association of individual mammography features to breast cancer risk, the statistical literature on mammogram imaging data is limited. While functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has been studied in the literature for extracting image-based features, it is conducted independently of the time-to-event response variable. With the consideration of building a prognostic model for precision prevention, we present a set of flexible methods, supervised FPCA (sFPCA) and functional partial least squares (FPLS), to extract image-based features associated with the failure time while accommodating the added complication from right censoring. Throughout the article, we hope to demonstrate that one method is favored over the other under different clinical setups. The proposed methods are applied to the motivating data set from the Joanne Knight Breast Health cohort at Siteman Cancer Center. Our approaches not only obtain the best prediction performance compared to the benchmark model, but also reveal different risk patterns within the mammograms.
- functional partial least squares
- functional principal component analysis
- image analysis
- risk prediction
- survival analysis