68Ga PSMA-11 PET with CT urography protocol in the initial staging and biochemical relapse of prostate cancer

Amir Iravani, Michael S. Hofman, Tony Mulcahy, Scott Williams, Declan Murphy, Bimal K. Parameswaran, Rodney J. Hicks

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15 Scopus citations


Background: 68Ga-labelled prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand PET/CT is a promising modality in primary staging (PS) and biochemical relapse (BCR) of prostate cancer (PC). However, pelvic nodes or local recurrences can be difficult to differentiate from radioactive urine. CT urography (CT-U) is an established method, which allows assessment of urological malignancies. The study presents a novel protocol of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-U in PS and BCR of PC. Methods: A retrospective review of PSMA PET/CT-U preformed on 57 consecutive patients with prostate cancer. Fifty mL of IV contrast was administered 10 min (range 8-15) before the CT component of a combined PET/CT study, acquired approximately 60 min (range 40-85) after administration of 166 MBq (range 91-246) of 68Ga-PSMA-11. PET and PET/CT-U were reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians and CT-U by a radiologist. First, PET images were reviewed independently followed by PET/CT-U images. Foci of activity which could not unequivocally be assessed as disease or urinary activity were recorded. PET/CT-U was considered of potential benefit in final interpretation when the equivocal focal activity in PET images corresponded to opacified ureter, bladder, prostate bed, seminal vesicles, or urethra. Student's T test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for assessment of variables including lymph node size and standardized uptake value. Results: Overall 50 PSMA PET/CT-U studies were performed for BCR and 7 for PS. Median PSA with BCR and PS were 2.0 ± 11.4 ng/ml (0.06-57.3 ng/ml) and 18 ± 35.3 ng/ml (6.8-100 ng/ml), respectively. The median Gleason-score for both groups was 7 (range 6-10). In BCR group, PSMA PET was reported positive in 36 (72%) patients, CT-U in 11(22%) patients and PET/CT-U in 33 (66%) patients. In PS group, PSMA PET detected the primary site in all seven patients, of which one patient with metastatic nodal disease had negative CT finding. Of 40 equivocal foci (27/57 patients) on PET, 11 foci (10/57 patients, 17.5%) were localized to enhanced urine on PET/CT-U, hence considered of potential benefit in interpretation. Of those, 3 foci (3 patients) were solitary sites of activity on PSMA imaging including two local and one nodal site and 4 foci (3 patients) were in different nodal fields. Conclusions: PET/CT-U protocol is a practical approach and may assist in interpretation of 68Ga-PSMA-11 imaging by delineation of the contrast opacified genitourinary system and matching focal PSMA activity with urinary contrast.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
JournalCancer Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 21 2017


  • Biochemical recurrence
  • CT urogram
  • Ga-PSMA-11 PET
  • Prostate cancer


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