Covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) to the amino-terminal glycine residue of a variety of eukaryotic cellular and viral proteins can have a profound influence on their biological properties. The enzyme that catalyzes this modification, myristoyl-CoA-protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), has been identified as a potential target for antiviral and antifungal therapy. Its reaction mechanism is ordered Bi Bi with myristoyl-CoA binding occurring before binding of peptide and CoA release preceding release of myristoylpeptide. Perturbations in the binding of its acyl-CoA substrate would therefore be expected to have an important influence on catalysis. We have synthesized 56 analogs of myristic acid (C14:0) to further characterize the acyl-CoA binding site of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NMT. The activity of fatty acid analogs was assessed using a coupled in vitro assay system that employed the reportedly nonspecific Pseudomonas acyl-CoA synthetase, purified S. cerevisiae NMT, and octapeptide substrates derived from residues 2-9 of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and the Pr55(gag) polyprotein precursor of human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-I). Analysis of ketocarbonyl-, ester-, and amide-containing myristic acid analogs (the latter in two isomeric arrangements, the acylamino acid (-CO-NH-) and the amide (-NH-CO)) indicated that the enzyme's binding site is able to accommodate a dipolar protrusion from C4 through C13. This includes the region of the acyl chain occurring near C5-C6 (numbered from carboxyl) that appears to be bound in a bent conformation of 140-150°. The activities of NMT's acyl-CoA substrates decrease with increasing polarity. This relationship was particularly apparent from an analysis of a series of analogs in which the hydrocarbon chain was terminated by (i) an azido group or (ii) one of three nitrogen heterocycles (imidazole, triazole, and tetrazole) alkylated at either nitrogen or carbon. This inverse relationship between polarity and activity was confirmed after comparison of the activities of the closely related ester- or amide-containing tetradecanoyl- CoA derivatives. Members from all of the analog series were surveyed to determine whether they could inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus I (HIV-I), a retrovirus that depends upon N-myristoylation of its Pr55(gag) for propagation. 12-Azidododecanoic acid was the most active analog tested, producing a 60-90% inhibition of viral production in both acutely and chronically infected T-lymphocyte cell lines at a concentration of 10-50 μM without associated cellular toxicity.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1992|