Study Design and Analysis in Hand Surgery Research: Tips for Success

Kevin A. Hao, Ryan P. Calfee, Jennifer F. Waljee, Ramesh C. Srinivasan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hand surgeons are constantly faced with evaluation of new evidence to identify best practices in clinical care. However, even the most rigorous study designs have limitations due to biases, generalizability, and other flaws. Here, we highlight seven common aspects of study design and analysis that should be considered by hand surgeons when interpreting findings. The evaluation of these practices can optimize the peer-review process and assess the value of evidence to be incorporated into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-946
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Data
  • P value
  • methodology
  • methods
  • statistics


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