Studies with GIP/Ins cells indicate secretion by gut K cells is KATP channel independent

Song Yan Wang, Maggie M.Y. Chi, Lin Li, Kelle H. Moley, Burton M. Wice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


K cells are a subpopulation of enteroendocrine cells that secrete glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a hormone that promotes glucose homeostasis and obesity. Therefore, it is important to understand how GIP secretion is regulated. GIP-producing (GIP/Ins) cell lines secreted hormones in response to many GIP secretagogues except glucose. In contrast, glyceraldehyde and methyl pyruvate stimulated hormone release. Measurements of intracellular glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and pyruvate levels, as well as glycolytic flux, in glucose-stimulated GIP/Ins cells indicated that glycolysis was not impaired. Analogous results were obtained using glucose-responsive MIN6 insulinoma cells. Citrate levels increased similarly in glucose-treated MIN6 and GIP/Ins cells. Thus pyruvate entered the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Glucose and methyl pyruvate stimulated 1.4- and 1.6-fold increases, respectively, in the ATP-to-ADP ratio in GIP/Ins cells. Glyceraldehyde profoundly reduced, rather than increased, ATP/ ADP. Thus nutrient-regulated secretion is independent of the ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channel. Antibody staining of mouse intestine demonstrated that enteroendocrine cells producing GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1, CCK, or somatostatin do not express detectable levels of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) 6.1 or Kir 6.2, indicating that release of these hormones in vivo may also be KATP channel independent. Conversely, nearly all cells expressing chromogranin A or substance P and ∼50% of the cells expressing secretin or serotonin exhibited Kir 6.2 staining. Compounds that activate calcium mobilization were potent secretagogues for GIP/ Ins cells. Secretion was only partially inhibited by verapamil, suggesting that calcium mobilization from intracellular and extracellular sources, independent from KATP channels, regulates secretion from some, but not all, subpopulations of enteroendocrine cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E988-E1000
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5 47-5
StatePublished - May 1 2003


  • ATP-dependent potassium channels
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
  • Hormone secretion
  • Insulin
  • Inwardly rectifying potassium channel
  • K cells


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