Allograft struts are used to reinforce the deficient proximal femur in hip arthroplasty or for fixation of a periprosthetic fracture. Although the use of strut grafts wired or cabled to the proximal femur generally has been successful, the time for healing is slow. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether cortical strut graft healing to the femur could be enhanced by the addition of recombinant human osteogenic protein-1. Fourteen adult dogs underwent bilateral onlay allograft strut procedures to the midfemur using stainless steel cables. In each animal one femur received 500 mg of osteogenic protein-1 device (2.5 mg recombinant human osteogenic protein-1/g Type I collagen) interposed between the graft and host bone. The results showed that the healing of cortical strut grafts to the femur was enhanced dramatically by the addition of the osteogenic protein-1 device. The sites treated with osteogenic protein-1 had significantly greater radiographic, histologic, and microradiographic scores at all times. Rapid formation of new bone and graft incorporation was observed in sites treated with the osteogenic protein-1 device. Strut healing with the osteogenic protein-1 device at 4 weeks postoperative was superior to the healing in control sites at 8 weeks. Improving and accelerating the course of cortical strut graft healing should provide a substantial clinical benefit in lowering the risk of graft nonunion and fracture and shorten the time of protected weightbearing and functional disability.