Structure-function analysis of the active sites of complement receptor type 1

Malgorzata Krych, Richard Hauhart, John P. Atkinson

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Two functionally distinct but homologous sites in complement receptor type 1 (CR1) (CD35) were further characterized by homologous substitution mutagenesis of two CR1 derivatives, each containing one site. In both sites, reducing negative and/or increasing positive charge augmented interaction with iC3/C3b and C4b, supporting a role of ionic forces in the binding reaction. In one case, substitution of Asp at the end of complement control protein repeat (CCP) 2 with an Asn transformed the protein, with negligible cofactor activity and iC3 binding, into a mutant with activities similar to native CR1. Consequently, this protein, one-fourth the size of CR1, is a therapeutic candidate for a complement inhibitor. Another important observation is that the residues between two CCPs contribute to activity, probably because they influence positioning of one CCP relative to the next. The initial characterization of the third CCP of an active site led to identification of three peptides necessary for binding. In line with earlier findings for the first two CCPs, interactions with iC3/C3b are similar but not identical to those with C4b, implying overlapping but distinct binding domains. Moreover, changes in cofactor activity usually, but not always, parallel alterations in binding, indicating that these two activities are separable. We also mapped epitopes for a blocking and a function enhancing monoclonal antibody. Their effects can be explained by epitope location. The first antibody binds near functionally important residues. The second may shield inhibitory (negatively charged) residues. These results represent a comprehensive analysis of the active sites of CR1, which is built of modules found in more than 50 mammalian proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8623-8629
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number15
StatePublished - Apr 10 1998


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