Tetracyclines (TCs) are an important class of antibiotics threatened by an emerging new resistance mechanism─enzymatic inactivation. These TC-inactivating enzymes, also known as tetracycline destructases (TDases), inactivate all known TC antibiotics, including drugs of last resort. Combination therapies consisting of a TDase inhibitor and a TC antibiotic represent an attractive strategy for overcoming this type of antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the structure-based design, synthesis, and evaluation of bifunctional TDase inhibitors derived from anhydrotetracycline (aTC). By appending a nicotinamide isostere to the C9 position of the aTC D-ring, we generated bisubstrate TDase inhibitors. The bisubstrate inhibitors have extended interactions with TDases by spanning both the TC and presumed NADPH binding pockets. This simultaneously blocks TC binding and the reduction of FAD by NADPH while “locking” TDases in an unproductive FAD “out” conformation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3917-3933
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 23 2023


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