Striatal mechanisms underlying movement, reinforcement, and punishment

Alexxai V. Kravitz, Anatol C. Kreitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations


Direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons are known to exert opposing control over motor output. In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate punishment and aversion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-177
Number of pages11
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012


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