12 Scopus citations


Background: Multiple studies have demonstrated decreases in striatal D2-like (D2, D3) radioligand binding in primary focal dystonias. Although most investigations have focused on D2-specific receptors (D2R), a recent study suggests that the decreased D2-like binding may be due to a D3-specific (D3R) abnormality. However, only limited data exist on the role of D1-specific receptors (D1R) and the D1R-mediated pathways within basal ganglia in dystonia. Metabolic positron emission tomography (PET) data in primary generalized dystonia suggest resting state over activity in the D1R-mediated direct pathway, leading to excessive disinhibition of motor cortical areas. This work investigated whether striatal D1-like receptors are affected in primary focal dystonias. Methods: Striatal-specific (caudate and putamen) binding of the D1-like radioligand [11C]NNC 112 was measured using PET in 19 patients with primary focal dystonia (cranial, cervical, or arm) and 18 controls. Results: No statistically significant difference was detected in striatal D1-like binding between the two groups. The study had 91% power to detect a 20% difference, indicating that false-negative results were unlikely. Conclusions: Because [11C]NNC 112 has high affinity for D1-like receptors, very low affinity for D2-like receptors, and minimal sensitivity to endogenous dopamine levels, we conclude that D1-like receptor binding is not impaired in these primary focal dystonias.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2002-2006
Number of pages5
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number14
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • D1 receptor
  • Focal dystonia
  • Positron emission tomography
  • [C]NNC 112


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