Background: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) present in human seminal fluid exists in many isoforms due to different sequence, glycosylation pattern and polypeptide length. Its presence in various stages of cancer has already been reported. Methods: We identified 8 forms of PSA followed by purification of 3 forms. We compared their binding affinities to designed synthetic peptides, by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). PSA forms were purified using various chromatographic procedures and characterized by 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results: The heterogeneity of purified PSA was demonstrated by 2DE analysis. The peptides were designed on the basis of cleavage map of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) subsequently, these peptides showed the binding affinities in the range of 10- 5 to 10- 12 M. Out of 7 peptides, VLLH showed maximum affinity to intact PSA, while FLSYK showed maximum affinity to cleaved forms of PSA. On the other hand, FLSYK in the presence of zinc showed higher affinity to intact PSA. These peptides showed higher affinity to PSA compared to zinc, which is a known inhibitor of PSA. Conclusions: This study reports purification and characterization of 3 forms of PSA simultaneously. Furthermore, we have reported specific peptides for different forms of PSA which are either responsible for prostate cancer (PCa) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our study aids the existing information on categorizing the molecular heterogeneity of PSA.
- Biomarker and tumor proliferation
- Peptidic inhibitors
- Prostrate specific antigen
- Surface plasmon resonance