Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the world. Over 90% of those born with SCD live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet individuals in these settings have much poorer outcomes compared to those in high-income countries. Areas Covered: This manuscript provides an in-depth review of the cornerstones of basic SCD care, the barriers to implementing these in LMICs, and strategies to increase access in these regions. Publications in English language, peer-reviewed, and edited from 2000 to 2021 were identified on PubMed. Google search was used for gray literature. Expert Opinion: Outcomes for patients with SCD in high-income countries have improved over the last few decades due to the implementation of universal newborn screening programs and use of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis, increase in therapeutic and curative options, and the adoption of specific measures to decrease risk of stroke. This success has not translated to LMICs due to several reasons including resource constraints. A combination of several strategies is needed to increase access to basic SCD care for patients in these settings.
- Global health
- low- and middle-income countries
- newborn screening
- sickle cell disease