Objective. 90Y selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can potentially underdose lesions, as identified on post-therapy PET/CT imaging. This study introduces a methodology and explores the feasibility for selectively treating SIRT-underdosed HCC lesions, or lesion subvolumes, with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) following post-SIRT dosimetry. Approach. We retrospectively analyzed post-treatment PET/CT images of 20 HCC patients after 90Y SIRT. Predicted tumor response from SIRT was quantified based on personalized post-therapy dosimetry and corresponding response models. Predicted non-responding tumor regions were then targeted with a hypothetical SBRT boost plan using a framework for selecting eligible tumors and tumor subregions. SBRT boost plans were compared to SBRT plans targeting all tumors irrespective of SIRT dose with the same prescription and organ-at-risk (OAR) objectives. The potential benefit of SIRT followed by a SBRT was evaluated based on OAR dose and predicted toxicity compared to the independent SBRT treatment. Main results. Following SIRT, 14/20 patients had at least one predicted non-responding tumor considered eligible for a SBRT boost. When comparing SBRT plans, 10/14 (71%) SBRTboost and 12/20 (60%) SBRTalone plans were within OAR dose constraints. For three patients, SBRTboost plans were within OAR constraints while SBRTalone plans were not. Across the 14 eligible patients, SBRTboost plans had significantly less dose to the healthy liver (decrease in mean dose was on average ± standard deviation, 2.09 Gy ± 1.99 Gy, ) and reduced the overall targeted PTV volume (39% ± 21%) compared with SBRTalone. Significance. A clinical methodology for treating HCC using a synergized SIRT and SBRT approach is presented, demonstrating that it could reduce normal tissue toxicity risk in a majority of our retrospectively evaluated cases. Selectively targeting SIRT underdosed HCC lesions, or lesion subvolumes, with SBRT could improve tumor control and patient outcomes post-SIRT and allow SIRT to function as a target debulking tool for cases when SBRT is not independently feasible.
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- radiation therapy