Stepwise Activation of BAX and BAK by tBID, BIM, and PUMA Initiates Mitochondrial Apoptosis

Hyungjin Kim, Ho Chou Tu, Decheng Ren, Osamu Takeuchi, John R. Jeffers, Gerard P. Zambetti, James J.D. Hsieh, Emily H.Y. Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

488 Scopus citations


While activation of BAX/BAK by BH3-only molecules (BH3s) is essential for mitochondrial apoptosis, the underlying mechanisms remain unsettled. Here we demonstrate that BAX undergoes stepwise structural reorganization leading to mitochondrial targeting and homo-oligomerization. The α1 helix of BAX keeps the α9 helix engaged in the dimerization pocket, rendering BAX as a monomer in cytosol. The activator BH3s, tBID/BIM/PUMA, attack and expose the α1 helix of BAX, resulting in secondary disengagement of the α9 helix and thereby mitochondrial insertion. Activator BH3s remain associated with the N-terminally exposed BAX through the BH1 domain to drive homo-oligomerization. BAK, an integral mitochondrial membrane protein, has bypassed the first activation step, explaining why its killing kinetics are faster than those of BAX. Furthermore, death signals initiated at ER induce BIM and PUMA to activate mitochondrial apoptosis. Accordingly, deficiency of Bim/Puma impedes ER stress-induced BAX/BAK activation and apoptosis. Our study provides mechanistic insights regarding the spatiotemporal execution of BAX/BAK-governed cell death.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)487-499
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular cell
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 13 2009




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