Screening and diagnostic testing play fundamental roles in all fields of clinical medicine, with obstetric imaging and prenatal diagnosis being no exceptions. With advances in maternal serum screening and ultrasound technology, much research effort in the field of prenatal diagnosis has actually been dedicated to the development and refinement of screening tests for fetal aneuploidy and other congenital disorders. This article aims to review the differences between screening and diagnostic tests, describe the accepted criteria for an efficient screening test, and provide an overview of the calculation and interpretation of test performance characteristics in relation to prenatal imaging studies.
- Diagnostic tests
- Receiver operating characteristic curves
- Screening tests
- Test efficiency