Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk. In addition to cholesterol lowering, statins have systemic anti-inflammatory properties. However, their effect on histologic prostate inflammation is not well understood, particularly among men at increased prostate cancer risk but with a negative prostate biopsy. We examined associations between serum lipid levels, statin use, and histologic prostate inflammation using data from 6,655 men with a negative baseline prostate biopsy in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. Statin use and lipid levels [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides] were assessed at baseline. Inflammation was assessed by central review. Logistic regression was used to examine the effects of lipids and statin use on presence and extent of chronic and acute prostate inflammation [none, moderate (<20%), severe (-20% biopsy cores)]. Chronic and acute inflammation affected 77% and 15% of men, respectively. Men with high HDL (-60 vs. <40 mg/dL) had reduced presence of acute inflammation [OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.99] and were less likely to have severe acute inflammation (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.97), but there were no other associations between lipids and inflammation. Statin users had reduced presence of chronic inflammation (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95) and were less likely to have severe chronic (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.95) and severe acute inflammation (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-1.00), relative to non-users. Given the possible role for inflammation in prostate cancer, the inverse association between statins and prostate inflammation suggests a mechanism linking statins with lower advanced prostate cancer risk.