Standard-of-care axicabtagene ciloleucel for relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma: Results from the US lymphoma CAR T consortium

Loretta J. Nastoupil, Michael D. Jain, Lei Feng, Jay Y. Spiegel, Armin Ghobadi, Yi Lin, Saurabh Dahiya, Matthew Lunning, Lazaros Lekakis, Patrick Reagan, Olalekan Oluwole, Joseph McGuirk, Abhinav Deol, Alison R. Sehgal, Andre Goy, Brian T. Hill, Khoan Vu, Charalambos Andreadis, Javier Munoz, Jason WestinJulio C. Chavez, Amanda Cashen, N. Nora Bennani, Aaron P. Rapoport, Julie M. Vose, David B. Miklos, Sattva S. Neelapu, Frederick L. Locke

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485 Scopus citations


PURPOSE Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an autologous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) on the basis of the single-arm phase II ZUMA-1 trial, which showed best overall and complete response rates in infused patients of 83% and 58%, respectively. We report clinical outcomes with axi-cel in the standard-of-care (SOC) setting for the approved indication. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected retrospectively from all patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL who underwent leukapheresis as of September 30, 2018, at 17 US institutions with the intent to receive SOC axi-cel. Toxicities were graded and managed according to each institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification. RESULTS Of 298 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 275 (92%) received axi-cel therapy. Compared with the registrational ZUMA-1 trial, 129 patients (43%) in this SOC study would not have met ZUMA-1 eligibility criteria because of comorbidities at the time of leukapheresis. Among the axi-cel-treated patients, grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 7% and 31%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 4.4%. Best overall and complete response rates in infused patients were 82% (95% CI, 77% to 86%) and 64% (95% CI, 58% to 69%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 12.9 months from the time of CAR T-cell infusion, median progression-free survival was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.0 to15.1 months), and median overall survival was not reached. Patients with poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4 and elevated lactate dehydrogenase had shorter progression-free and overall survival on univariable and multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION The safety and efficacy of axi-cel in the SOC setting in patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL was comparable to the registrational ZUMA-1 trial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3119-3128
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number27
StatePublished - Sep 20 2020


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