Stage Migration and Survival Trends in Laryngeal Cancer

Michael M. Li, Songzhu Zhao, Antoine Eskander, Chandler Rygalski, Guy Brock, Anuraag S. Parikh, Catherine T. Haring, Brian Swendseid, Kevin Y. Zhan, Carol R. Bradford, Theodoros N. Teknos, Ricardo L. Carrau, Kyle K. VanKoevering, Nolan B. Seim, Matthew O. Old, James W. Rocco, Sidharth V. Puram, Stephen Y. Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background: During the last two decades, significant advancements in the treatment of laryngeal cancer have occurred. Although survival of head and neck cancer patients has improved over time, the temporal trend of laryngeal cancer survival is an area of controversy. Methods: From 2004 to 2016, 77,527 patients who had laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent in the United States were identified in the National Cancer Database. Relative and observed survival rates were assessed for temporal trends. Multinomial logistic regression investigated the relationship between American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage and increasing calendar year. Results: No significant improvement in 2- or 5-year observed survival (OS) or relative survival (RS) was observed. The 5-year RS ranged from 61.72 to 63.97%, and the 5-year OS ranged from 54.26 to 56.52%. With each increasing year, the proportion of stage 4 disease increased, with risk for stage 4 disease at the time of diagnosis increasing 2.2% annually (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.022; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.028; p < 0.001). This increase was driven by a 4.7% yearly increase in N2 disease (aOR, 1.047; 95% CI, 1.041–1.053; p < 0.001), with an annual 1.2% increase in T3 disease (aOR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.007–1.018; p < 0.001) and a 1.2% increase in T4 disease (aOR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.005–1.018; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite advances in the field, laryngeal cancer survival in the United States is not improving over time. This may be due to an increase in the proportion of stage 4 disease, driven primarily by increasing nodal disease. To achieve survival improvement commensurate with scientific and technologic advances, efforts should be made to diagnose and treat laryngeal cancer at earlier stages to prevent further stage migration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7300-7309
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2021


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