In severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), long-term therapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has reduced mortality from sepsis, revealing an underlying predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML). We have reported the early pattern of evolution to MDS/AML, but the long-term risk remains uncertain. We updated a prospective study of 374 SCN patients on long-term G-CSF enrolled in the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry. Long-term, the annual risk of MDS/AML attained a plateau (2·3%/year after 10 years). This risk now appears similar to, rather than higher than, the risk of AML in Fanconi anaemia and dyskeratosis congenita.
- acute myeloid leukaemia
- granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
- myelodysplastic syndromes
- severe congenital neutropenia