Stability of novel urinary biomarkers used for lupus nephritis

Ellen M. Cody, James E. Rose, Bin Huang, Tingting Qiu, Hermine I. Brunner, Prasad Devarajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: The Renal Activity Index for Lupus (RAIL) is a composite score of six urinary biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), ceruloplasmin, adiponectin, and hemopexin) used to monitor lupus nephritis activity in children. We tested stability of RAIL biomarkers prior to meaningful clinical use. Methods: Urine samples were tested by ELISA under shipping conditions, freeze/thaw, ambient and longer-term storage. Statistical analysis was performed via Deming Regression, Bland-Altman and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Results: Biomarker concentration were comparable to freshly collected urine following storage at −80 °C for up to 3 months, and at 4 or 25 °C up to 48 h followed by −80 °C. Neither shipping on dry or wet ice exposure nor addition of two freeze-thaw cycles led to loss of signal, with excellent Spearman Correlation coefficients under all conditions. Conclusions: RAIL biomarkers are stable following short-term storage at clinically relevant conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number974049
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
StatePublished - Jul 29 2022


  • SLE
  • biomarker
  • lupus nephritis
  • stability
  • urine


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