CXCL12 and VCAM1 retain hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the BM, but the factors mediating HSC egress from the BM to the blood are not known. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is expressed on HSCs, and S1P facilitates the egress of committed hematopoietic progenitors from the BM into the blood. In the present study, we show that both the S1P gradient between the BM and the blood and the expression of S1P1 are essential for optimal HSC mobilization by CXCR4 antagonists, including AMD3100, and for the trafficking of HSCs during steady-state hematopoiesis. We also demonstrate that the S1P1 agonist SEW2871 increases AMD3100-induced HSC and progenitor cell mobilization. These results suggest that the combination of a CXCR4 antagonist and a S1P1 agonist may prove to be sufficient for mobilizing HSCs in normal donors for transplantation purposes, potentially providing a single mobilization procedure and eliminating the need to expose normal donors to G-CSF with its associated side effects.