The effect of feeding xenoserum (xs) on cytolytic cell activity induced by parenteral injection was examined in C3H/N mice. Spleen cells were cultured with xs and then assayed for cytolytic activity against a panel of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1, AKR-A, or P815 target cells. Prior feeding resulted in significant suppression of responses stimulated by injection and culture. The induction of these responses was antigen specific for xs whereas the effector stage represented polyclonal activation of cytolytic cells. Some effector cells were lysed by either anti-Lyt 2 or anti-NK- 1.2 and complement and some were blocked by anti-Lyt 2 or anti-T200 in the cytotoxicity assay. Thus, both cytolytic T and NK-like cells were suppressed by antigen feeding. Activity of TH cell-derived factors which enhance cytolytic activity ("promoter" factor, interferon, and interleukin 2) also was diminished in culture supematants of cells from mice fed soluble antigens. The conclusion that polyclonal cytolytic responses induced by soluble antigen can be regulated by prior enteric stimulation is made.