Disorders of sodium and water balance are common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. These disorders frequently complicate the treatment course by precipitating or worsening neurological symptoms. These patients are not only at risk for symptoms secondary to dysnatremia but also at risk from the consequences of treatment. If not treated properly, this electrolyte disturbance can vastly increase morbidity and can even lead to death. Appropriate diagnosis and intervention requires an understanding of the physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in sodium and water homeostasis.
- antidiuretic hormone
- diabetes insipidus (DI)
- natriuretic factors
- subarachnoid hemorrhage
- syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone