Although immunotherapy can offer profound clinical benefit for patients with a variety of difficult-to-treat cancers, many tumors either do not respond to upfront treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) or progressive/recurrent disease occurs after an interval of initial control. Improved response rates have been demonstrated with the addition of ICIs to cytotoxic therapies, leading to approvals from the US Food and Drug Administration and regulatory agencies in other countries for ICI-chemotherapy combinations in a number of solid tumor indications, including breast, head and neck, gastric, and lung cancer. Designing trials for patients with tumors that do not respond or stop responding to treatment with immunotherapy combinations, however, is challenging without uniform definitions of resistance. Previously, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) published consensus definitions for resistance to single-agent anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). To provide guidance for clinical trial design and to support analyses of emerging molecular and cellular data surrounding mechanisms of resistance to ICI-based combinations, SITC convened a follow-up workshop in 2021 to develop consensus definitions for resistance to multiagent ICI combinations. This manuscript reports the consensus clinical definitions for combinations of ICIs and chemotherapies. Definitions for resistance to ICIs in combination with targeted therapies and with other ICIs will be published in companion volumes to this paper.
- Drug Therapy, Combination
- Tumor Escape