Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT), a pediatric cancer that most frequently appears in the kidney and brain, generally lack SNF5 (SMARCB1/INI1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recent studies have established that multiple SWI/SNF complexes exist due to the presence or absence of different complex members. Therefore, the effect of SNF5 loss upon SWI/SNF complex formation was investigated in human MRT cells. MRT cells and primary human tumors exhibited reduced levels of many complex proteins. Furthermore, reexpression of SNF5 increased SWI/SNF complex protein levels without concomitant increases in mRNA. Proteomic analysis, using mass spectrometry, of MRT cells before and after SNF5 reexpression indicated the recruitment of different components into the complex along with the expulsion of others. IP-Western blotting confirmed these results and demonstrated similar changes in other MRT cell lines. Finally, reduced expression of SNF5 in normal human fibroblasts led to altered levels of these same complex members. These data establish that SNF5 loss during MRT development alters the repertoire of available SWI/SNF complexes, generally disrupting those associated with cellular differentiation. These findings support a model where SNF5 inactivation blocks the conversion of growth-promoting SWI/SNF complexes to differentiation-inducing ones. Therefore, restoration of these complexes in tumors cells provides an attractive approach for the treatment of MRTs.