Smoking Is Associated with Basal Cell Hyperplasia on Prostate Biopsy Specimens

Daniel Melecchi Freitas, Gerald L. Andriole, Stephen J. Freedland, Brasil S. Neto, Daniel M. Moreira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed the association between cigarette smoking and prostate basal cell proliferation. Therefore, we sought to evaluate whether smoking status is associated with the presence of basal cell hyperplasia (BCH). Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 8,196 men aged 50 to 75 years with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL and prior negative biopsy who were enrolled in the (REDUCE) trial. Cigarette smoking status was divided into current, former, or never categories at enrollment. The association between smoking and baseline BCH was evaluated, with logistic regression in univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: A total of 1,233 (15.1%) men were current smokers, 3,206 (39.1%) were former smokers, and 3,575 (45.8%) were never smokers. In univariable analysis, current smoking was associated with higher baseline BCH occurrence compared with never (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.10) and former smokers (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.06-2.95). Similar results were found after adjusting for patient characteristics (current vs never smokers: OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.14-3.26; current vs former smokers: OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.91). Conclusions: Among men undergoing prostate biopsy, all of whom had a negative biopsy result, current smoking at enrollment was independently associated with BCH in standard peripheral zone prostate biopsies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)934-938
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican journal of clinical pathology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Basal cell hyperplasia
  • Biopsy
  • Prostate
  • Smoking


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