Smoking and risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer: Results from the REDUCE study

Tammy Ho, Lauren E. Howard, Adriana C. Vidal, Leah Gerber, Daniel Moreira, Madeleine McKeever, Gerald Andriole, Ramiro Castro-Santamaria, Stephen J. Freedland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Purpose: Although the relationship between smoking and prostate cancer risk is inconsistent, some studies show that smoking is associated with prostate cancer mortality. Whether this reflects delayed diagnosis or direct smoking-related effects is unknown. REDUCE, which followed biopsy-negative men with protocol-dictated prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-independent biopsies at 2 and 4 years, provides an opportunity to evaluate smoking and prostate cancer diagnosis with minimal confounding from screening biases. Experimental Design: Logistic regression was conducted to test the association between smoking and cancer on the first on-study biopsy (no cancer, low-grade Gleason 4-6, high-grade Gleason 7-10) in REDUCE. Results: Of 6,240 men with complete data and ≥1 on-study biopsy, 2,937 (45.8%) never smoked, 929 (14.5%) were current smokers, and 2,554 (39.8%) were former smokers. Among men with negative first on-study biopsies, smokers were 36% less likely to receive a second on-study biopsy (P < 0.001). At first on-study biopsy, 941 (14.7%) men had cancer. Both current and former smoking were not significantly associated with either total or low-grade prostate cancer (all P > 0.36). Current (OR = 1.44, P = 0.028) but not former smokers (OR = 1.21, P = 0.12) were at increased risk of high-grade disease. On secondary analysis, there was an interaction between smoking and body mass index (BMI; Pinteraction = 0.017): current smokers with BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 had an increased risk of low-grade (OR = 1.54, P = 0.043) and high-grade disease (OR = 2.45, P = 0.002), with null associations for BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Conclusion: Amongmenwith elevated PSA and negative pre-study biopsy in REDUCE, in which biopsies were largely PSA independent, smoking was unrelated to overall prostate cancer diagnosis but was associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5331-5338
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 15 2014


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