Small volume resuscitation with tempol is detrimental during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats

Rainer Kentner, Peter Safar, Wilhelm Behringer, Xianren Wu, Jeremy Henchir, Li Ma, Carleton J.C. Hsia, Samuel A. Tisherman

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10 Scopus citations


Background: In a previous study, titration of a hypertonic saline (HTS) solution during severe uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS) failed to reduce mortality. In a separate study, a novel antioxidant, polynitroxylated albumin (PNA) plus tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), infused during shock increased long-term survival. We hypothesized that combining potent antioxidants with a hypertonic solution during UHS would preserve the logistical advantage of small volume resuscitation and improve survival. Methods: An UHS outcome model in rats was used. UHS phase I (90 min) included blood withdrawal of 30 ml/kg over 15 min, followed by tail amputation for uncontrolled bleeding. At 20 min, rats were randomized to four groups (n = 10 each) for hypotensive resuscitation from 20 to 90 min (mean arterial pressure [MAP] ≥ 40 mmHg): HTS/starch group received 7.2% NaCl/10% hydroxyethyl starch; HTS/albumin group received 7.5% NaCl/20% albumin; HTS/PNA group received 7.5% NaCl/20% PNA; HTS/albumin + tempol group received 7.5% NaCl/20% albumin plus tempol. Resuscitation phase II (180 min) included hemostasis, return of shed blood and administration of fluids to restore MAP ≥ 80 mmHg. Observation phase III was to 72 h. Results: The total amount of fluid required to maintain hypotensive MAP during HS was low and did not differ between groups (range: 3.4 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 2.5 ml/kg). The rate of fluid administration required was higher in the HTS/albumin + tempol group compared to all other groups (p = 0.006). Additional uncontrolled blood loss was highest in the HTS/PNA group (16.2 ± 5.7 ml/kg [p = 0.01] versus 10.4 ± 7.9 ml/kg in the HTS/starch group, 7.7 ± 5.2 ml/kg in the HTS/albumin group and 8.2 ± 7.1 ml/kg in the HTS/albumin + tempol group). MAP after start of resuscitation in phase I was lower in the HTS/albumin + tempol group than the HTS/albumin or HTS/PNA groups (p < 0.01). This group was also less tachycardic. Long-term survival was low in all groups (2 of 10 after HTS/starch and 1 of 10 after HTS/albumin, 3 of 10 after HTS/PNA, 1 of 10 after HTS/albumin + tempol). Median survival time was shortest in the HTS/albumin + tempol group (72 min [CI 34-190]) compared to all other groups (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite its benefits in other model systems, free tempol is potentially hazardous when combined with hypertonic fluids. PNA abrogates these deleterious effects on acute mortality but may lead to increased blood loss in the setting of UHS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-305
Number of pages11
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007


  • Albumin
  • Antioxidants
  • Fluid therapy
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Polynitroxylated albumin
  • Resuscitation
  • Tempol


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