What is the role of sleep in children's behavioral, emotional, and cognitive regulation? This chapter considers theoretical and conceptual links between sleep and self-regulation, with special attention to sleep and self-regulation in early childhood. We selectively review the growing body of research on associations between sleep and self-regulation, mentioning some methodological issues. We also consider how child characteristics and sociocontextual factors may interact with sleep in the development of self-regulation in early childhood. We provide some relevant empirical examples from our own research.