The mitochondrial response to changes in cellular energy demand is necessary for cellular adaptation and organ function. Many genes are essential in orchestrating this response, including the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 target gene Mss51, an inhibitor of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. Although Mss51 is implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and musculoskeletal disease, how Mss51 is regulated is not entirely understood. Site-1 protease (S1P) is a key activator of several transcription factors required for cellular adaptation. However, the role of S1P in muscle is unknown. Here, we identify S1P as a negative regulator of muscle mass and mitochondrial respiration. S1P disruption in mouse skeletal muscle reduces Mss51 expression and increases muscle mass and mitochondrial respiration. The effects of S1P deficiency on mitochondrial activity are counteracted by overexpressing Mss51, suggesting that one way S1P inhibits respiration is by regulating Mss51. These discoveries expand our understanding of TGF-β signaling and S1P function.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112336
JournalCell Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 25 2023


  • CP: Metabolism
  • Mss51
  • TGF-β
  • metabolism
  • mitochondria
  • muscle mass
  • respiration
  • site-1 protease
  • skeletal muscle


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