Purpose: Patients with aneurysmal disease involving both the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta have historically required simultaneous or sequential conventional operations, but the morbidity rate is high with either approach in these patients, who often exhibit coexisting cardiopulmonary disease. Transluminally placed endovascular grafts have recently been developed for repair of aortic aneurysms, and we have implemented these techniques to eliminate the need for a thoracotomy in patients with multilevel aortic disease. Methods: Since January 1994, 18 patients have undergone conventional abdominal aortic replacement with endovascular stent-graft placement into the descending thoracic aorta under fluoroscopic guidance through a 10 mm Dacron side limb off the abdominal graft. Abdominal aortic replacement required a tube graft in eight patients and bifurcated grafts in 10 patients. Thoracic stent-grafts (custom fabricated, woven Dacron covered, self-expandable stents) averaged 12.2 ± 4.2 cm (mean ± SD) in length. Results: One patient died, resulting in a hospital mortality rate of 6%. No patients required further surgical intervention to treat their aortic disease. Seventeen patients (94%) are currently well 14 ± 8 months after surgery (range, 3 to 29 months) with completely excluded thoracic aortic disease, no stent migration, and no change in stent configuration documented by serial radiologic examinations. Conclusions: Simultaneous abdominal aortic replacement and deployment of a thoracic stent-graft can safely exclude multilevel aortic aneurysmal disease and may be a valuable treatment option for these otherwise high-risk patients.