As in mammals, high-sucrose diets lead to obesity and insulin resistance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (called Drosophila hereafter). To explore the relative contributions of glucose and fructose, sucrose’s component monosaccharides, we compared their effects on larval physiology. Both sugars exhibited similar effects to sucrose, leading to obesity and hyperglycemia. There were no striking differences resulting from larvae fed high glucose versus high fructose. Some small but statistically significant differences in weight and gene expression were observed that suggest Drosophila is a promising model system for understanding monosaccharide-specific effects on metabolic homeostasis.