Signals for the transition from liquid to gas in hot nuclei

V. E. Viola, T. Lefort, L. Beaulieu, K. Kwiatkowski, G. Wang, R. De Souza, L. Pienkowski, A. Botvina, H. Breuer, D. Durand, R. G. Korteling, R. Laforest, E. Martin, E. Ramakrishnan, D. Rowland, A. Ruangma, E. Winchester, S. J. Yennello

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Hot nuclei produced in 5-15 GeV proton-, pion-and antiproton-induced reactions on 197Au have been studied with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) charged-particle detector array at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator. Each event has been reconstructed from the data to determine the excitation energy, charge and mass of the emitting source. Using E*/A as a sorting variable, the IMF kinetic energy spectra have been examined to assess the degree of thermal expansion in these reactions. Relative to SMM and SIMON-explosion calculations, the data suggest a weak extra thermal expansion energy above E*/A ≈ 5 MeV. IMF-IMF correlation functions show an order-of-magnitude decrease in the relative emission time in the interval E*/A ≈ 2-5 MeV. Above this value, a constant limiting time of 20-50 fm/c is found. These observations are consistent with the transition from liquid to vapor due to thermal heating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-274
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Physics A
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - Jan 29 2001


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