Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a vital imaging technique used for staging, assessing treatment response, and restaging following completion of therapy in patients who are undergoing or have completed oncologic treatment. A variety of adverse effects from chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy are commonly encountered in oncologic patients. It is important to be aware of the manifestations of these adverse effects seen on FDG PET/CT images to avoid misinterpreting these findings as disease progression. Furthermore, early identification of these complications is important, as it may significantly affect patient management and even lead to a change in treatment strategy. The authors focus on the FDG PET/CT manifestations of a broad spectrum of oncologic therapy–related adverse effects in the tho-rax, as well as some treatment-related changes that may potentially mimic malignancy.