Background: The aim of the present study was to compare sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNKSS). Methods: The GCNKSS ascertained AIS cases in 2005 and 2010 among adult (age ≥ 20 years) residents of a biracial population of 1.3 million. Past and current stroke risk factors were compared between those with and without DM using Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analysis to examine sex-specific profiles. Results: There were 3515 patients with incident AIS; 1919 (55%) were female, 697 (20%) were Black, and 1146 (33%) had DM. Among both women and men with DM, significantly more were obese and had hypertension, high cholesterol, and coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with those without DM. For women with AIS, multivariable sex-specific adjusted analyses revealed that older age was associated with decreased odds of having DM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–0.98). For women with CAD, the odds of DM were increased (aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.33–2.32). Age and CAD were not significant factors in differentiating the profiles of men with and without DM. Conclusions: Women with DM had strokes at a younger age, whereas no such age difference existed in men. Compared with men, women with DM were also more likely to have CAD than those without DM, suggesting a sex difference in the association between DM and vascular disease. These findings may suggest a need for more aggressive risk factor management in diabetic women.
- risk factors
- sex differences