Severe hypoglycemia-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmias are augmented by diabetes and attenuated by recurrent hypoglycemia

Candace M. Reno, Jennifer VanderWeele, Justin Bayles, Marina Litvin, Allie Skinner, Andrew Jordan, Dorit Daphna-Iken, Simon J. Fisher

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that insulin-mediated severe hypoglycemia induces lethal cardiac arrhythmias. However, whether chronic diabetes and insulin deficiency exacerbates, and whether recurrent antecedent hypoglycemia ameliorates, susceptibility to arrhythmias remains unknown. Thus, adult Sprague-Dawley ratswere randomized into four groups: 1) nondiabetic (NONDIAB), 2) streptozotocin-induced insulin deficiency (STZ), 3) STZ with antecedent recurrent (3 days) hypoglycemia (∼40-45 mg/dL, 90 min) (STZ+RH), and 4) insulin-treated STZ (STZ+Ins). Following treatment protocols, all rats underwent hyperinsulinemic (0.2 units kg-1 min-1), severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dL) clamps for 3 h with continuous electrocardiographic recordings. During matched nadirs of severe hypoglycemia, rats in the STZ +RH group required a 1.7-fold higher glucose infusion rate than those in the STZ group, consistent with the blunted epinephrine response. Second-degree heart block was increased 12- and 6.8-fold in the STZ and STZ+Ins groups, respectively, compared with the NONDIAB group, yet this decreased 5.4-fold in the STZ+RH group compared with the STZ group. Incidence of third-degree heart block in the STZ+RH group was 5.6%, 7.8-fold less than the incidence in the STZ group (44%). Mortality due to severe hypoglycemia was 5% in the STZ+RH group, 6.2-fold less than that in the STZ group (31%). In summary, severe hypoglycemia- induced cardiac arrhythmias were increased by insulin deficiency and diabetes and reduced by antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia. In this model, recurrent moderate hypoglycemia reduced fatal severe hypoglycemia- induced cardiac arrhythmias.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3091-3097
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes
Volume66
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

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    Reno, C. M., VanderWeele, J., Bayles, J., Litvin, M., Skinner, A., Jordan, A., Daphna-Iken, D., & Fisher, S. J. (2017). Severe hypoglycemia-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmias are augmented by diabetes and attenuated by recurrent hypoglycemia. Diabetes, 66(12), 3091-3097. https://doi.org/10.2337/db17-0306