Severe Hip Dysplasia in Skeletally Mature Patients with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: The Technique and Early Outcome of Comprehensive Surgical Correction (Including the Bernese PAO)

Mark L. Miller, John C. Clohisy, Gail E. Pashos, Lisa M. Berglund, Perry L. Schoenecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:Treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia in skeletally mature patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) can be challenging. This study examines our technical experience with the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in combination with adjunctive procedures in the treatment of this complex hip deformity.Methods:Sixteen consecutive patients (18 hips) with symptomatic CP hip dysplasia were treated with a PAO and variable adjunctive procedures and retrospectively reviewed. Two patient (2 hips) were excluded due to insufficient follow-up. The average age at the time of surgery was 17.7 years (range: 13 to 28 y). We compared the preoperative to postoperative changes in radiographic parameters as well as early outcomes as measured by patient assessment of hip pain and function using the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS).Results:The average time of follow-up was 3.3 years (range: 2.0 to 6.3 y). Tönnis angles decreased from a median of 30 degrees (range: 18 to 45 degrees) preoperatively to a median of 6 degrees (range: -9 to 21 degrees) postoperatively. Lateral center-edge angles increased from a median of -8 degrees (range: -28 to 15 degrees) to a median of 32 degrees (range: 19 to 38 degrees). Anterior center-edge angles increased from a median of 2 degrees (range: -22 to 39 degrees) to a median of 35 degrees (range: 22 to 47 degrees). The extrusion index decreased from a median of 57% preoperatively (range: 35% to 73%) to a median of 21% (range: 11% to 36%) postoperatively.The median mHHS was 62 (range: 37 to 81) preoperatively and 85 (range: 65 to 100) postoperatively. Notably, the pain component of the mHHS improved from 20 (range: 0 to 44) to 42 (range: 30 to 44). Tönnis osteoarthritis grade preoperatively was either 0 (11 hips) or 1 (5 hips) and remained unchanged in 11 hips and increased by 1 grade in 5 hips.Conclusions:It has been our experience that the Bernese PAO in combination with appropriate adjunctive treatments has provided a very satisfactory surgical approach in the treatment of CP hip dysplasia. In the adolescent and young adult with spastic CP, utilizing the Bernese PAO technique makes it possible to obtain redirection of often a very severe acetabular dysplasia. Adjunctive soft tissue procedures and a proximal femoral osteotomy are frequently necessary to maintain postoperative stability. A notable improvement in the quality of life and function directly attributable to our surgical treatment of their pre-existing problematic hip dysplasia has been consistently noted in early follow-up for our patients.Level of Evidence:Level IV - therapeutic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e7-e13
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Volume41
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • cerebral palsy
  • hip dysplasia
  • joint preservation
  • neuromuscular
  • PAO

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