The prevalence of HIV infection in children in India is not known. In this study, a total of 270 children admitted to paediatric wards in Mumbai were screened for HIV infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eight patients (2.96%) had a positive HIV ELISA. Of these two patients (25%) were less than 15 months of old and hence HIV infection in them could not be confirmed. The prevalence of HIV was 2.3%. Three out of 11 patients with tuberculosis (27.3%) and four out of 15 patients with nutritional anaemia (26.7%) had HIV infection (P< 0.0001 in each case). Vertical transmission was the cause in all children, suggesting that implementation of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV (PPTCT) is required to reduce the rate of paediatric HIV infection.